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What Is Sinusitis? Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and Prevention

What Are The Symptoms Of A Sinus Infection?

 

What Is A Sinus Infection?

Definition

A sinus infection (or sinusitis) is typically diagnosed when the sinus lining becomes swollen and inflamed. Sinusitis occurs when the sinus cavities become irritated and blocked, leading to a build-up of mucus in the back of the nose and throat. The blockage allows the sinuses to fill with fluid, which creates a suitable environment for germs to grow and create infection.

Chronic sinusitis occurs when the swelling, inflammation, and blockage lasts longer than three months.

 

infographic overview sinusitis United States economic impact statistics sinus infection

The Impact Of Sinusitis In America

  • Sinus infections are a major health concern worldwide, affecting between roughly 8 and 13 percent of people across the globe. [*]
  • In the United States, sinusitis impacts more than 30 million Americans, who spend more than $1 billion each year on over-the-counter medications and treatments. [*]
  • More than 15 million Americans visit the doctor each year because of sinus infections and they spend more than $150 million on prescription medications annually. [*]
  • Each year in America, up to 73 million days of decreased activity are reported as a result of sinusitis. [*]
  • Sinusitis has a socioeconomic impact of about $5.8b in America annually.
  • Sinus infections are more common in people who suffer from allergies, asthma, or other issues that can cause blockages in the nose or sinuses.
  • People with compromised immune systems are at a greater risk for developing sinus infections. [*] 

What Causes A Sinus Infection?

Sinusitis (or a sinus infection) can be caused by several factors, including a viral infection, such as the common cold or influenza. Sinus infections are also cause by seasonal allergies and reactions to other airborne particulates, such as dust and debris. Here is a list of common causes of sinusitis:

  • viral infections such as a cold or flu

  • particulate buildup, such as allergens and dust

  • bacterial infections (though, not as common)

  • nasal anatomy complexities, such as nasal polyps or deviated septum

 

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What Are The Symptoms Of A Sinus Infection?

Common symptoms of an acute sinus infection include:

Chronic sinusitis symptoms may also include:

 

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Who Is At Risk For A Sinus Infection?

Sinus infections are not uncommon, affecting more than 30 million Americans each year. However, people with certain underlying medical conditions may experience more frequent and severe cases of sinusitis.

  • Sinus infections often occur as a result of complications with seasonal allergies, asthma, or other issues that can cause blockages in the nose or sinuses. People with these conditions are more likely to develop chronic sinusitis.

  • Sinus infections also occur as a result of viral infections, such as the cold or flu. Therefore, people with weakened or compromised immune systems can be at a greater risk for developing acute sinusitis.

 

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How Long Does A Sinus Infection Last?

The duration of a sinus infection primarily depends on whether the cause is viral or bacterial. Viral infections usually show improvement within 10 days and bacterial infections tend to last longer. Sinusitis is typically separated into 3 categories based on how long the infection lasts. [*]

  1. Acute sinusitis - typically lasts 10 days, although symptoms may continue up to 3 or 4 weeks. An acute sinus infection is commonly caused by a viral infection, but can also be the result of environmental and/or bacterial conditions.

  2. Subacute sinusitis - is marked by symptoms that last anywhere from 4 to 12 weeks. Subacute sinus infections are commonly caused by bacterial infections or seasonal allergies. [*]

  3. Chronic sinusitis - (or chronic rhinosinusitis) lasts 12 weeks or longer. Chronic sinusitis is typically caused by a number of persistent sinus infections, leading to its diagnosis as a chronic condition.

 

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How Do You Treat A Sinus Infection?

Treatments for sinusitis may include:

  • Nasal washing or irrigation with saline, a natural nasal safe decongestant. Or using a common over-the-counter nasal safe medicine can be effective in treating acute sinusitis.

  • Speaking to your doctor about using a corticosteroid, antibiotic, or antifungal medicine delivered intranasally (in the nose).

  • Using compounding pharmacies to compound a sinus medication specifically for your needs, incorporating soothing ingredients to eliminate dry nose.

  • Regardless of your treatment choice, delivery to the location of the irritation or infection matters.

 

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When To See A Doctor For A Sinus Infection?

Consult a physician if you experience any of the following:

  • See your doctor if there is no improvement after 48 to 72 hours as this could indicate a more serious problem.

  • See your doctor immediately if you experience any of the following: fever, severe headache, confusion, stiff neck, changes in your vision, and/or swelling around the eyes or forehead, as these could be signs of a more serious infection.

  • Remember to record and report your symptoms and their duration to assist your doctor in creating your care plan.

Are Sinus Infections Contagious?

No. Sinus infections by themselves are not contagious. However, sinus infections are often the result of viruses such as the cold or flu. These viruses can spread from person to person and are commonly accompanied by a sinus infection. In other cases, sinus infections are the result of airborne bacteria, fungi, and allergens. These types of sinus infections are not contagious.

 

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How Do You Prevent A Sinus Infection?

To prevent a sinus infection, try the following:

What Happens If You Let A Sinus Infection Go Untreated?

A sinus infection that is left untreated can not only make life miserable it may develop into chronic sinusitis. If an infection isn’t cared for properly, it could also result in some potentially serious complications. These types of issues are rare but they can occur: [*]

  • Sinus infections, if left untreated, can spread to the eyes, often causing redness, irritation, and/or swelling. In more severe cases, they can even cause reduced, blurry, or complete loss of vision.

  • Severe sinusitis may need to be treated with antibiotics administered through an IV. [*]

  • A CT scan may be required to determine the seriousness of the infection.

  • In very rare cases, brain abscesses or meningitis may result from a severe and untreated sinus infection.[*]

 

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